An integral feature of primitive ideas about the world – an inseparable link between diachrony and synchrony.
Religious philosophy should be distinguished from idealistic philosophy. For this reason, it is impossible to identify the philosophy of religion, which, for example, follows from the fundamental principles of philosophical idealism (objective or subjective), with a specific form of religious philosophy. Modern religious philosophy is a set of different trends and currents that are developing in Christianity, Islam, Buddhism and other developed religious systems.
History has shown that numerous religious beliefs and cults are products of social development, reflecting in their specific teachings and doctrines the essential features of different social epochs. In this regard, religion is a universal spiritual phenomenon in society, which unites with the help of dogmas, moral and spiritual values of certain sections of the population in hierarchically built church organizations, contrasts on clearly defined confessional characteristics of different groups of believers and in the context of modern social reforms can help consolidate different communities of believers in their struggle against negative social deviations and phenomena, perform other functions.
Religion is a complex social and spiritual phenomenon, the roots of which go back to the depths of social history. The social nature and features of religion indicate its connection with the development of society – a certain self-reproducing system, where one element is associated with another. The processes of progressive changes or decline of spiritual values, as a whole of society as a whole, inevitably affect the historical evolution of religious teachings, the content of which is the basis of religious beliefs.
Hence the need for a comprehensive study of religious teachings, taking into account their dogmatic content and the social factors that determine the historical features of the origin and functioning of certain religious ideas.
Philosophy of religion localizes the subject of study of religion. The latter is the object of philosophical knowledge, primarily as a social phenomenon. Not only the mechanism of religion, but also the process of its reflection in the human mind, the peculiarities of the formation of religious concepts, symbols and spiritual values are studied. In this case, the object of philosophical study is not only religion itself, but the social and natural environment that influences the process of formation of religious beliefs.
One of the important functions of religion is the worldview function. It consists in the fact that religion tries to create its own picture of the world, moreover, – its own socio-epistemological schemes for improving social life, to determine the place and role of man in the system of nature and society.
The content of the religious worldview – not divine, but human, or rather – social, despite its fanaticism.
In religion, there is and is a defining element of the mystical – the idea of the supernatural, belief in its real existence and the possibility of a relationship with him. For modern religions – Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism – is a very important moral element, which gives them special significance in human spiritual and practical life. This element includes undoubted universal values, which are quite close in different religions and retain power and significance also outside the religious system.
Finally, the diversity, “diversity” of religions due to their element, which can be called civilized, each religion bears the imprint of the national or regional civilization in which it was formed, the imprint of the traditions of this civilization, historically, its special mentality.
Suffice it to say, for example, to compare the Judeo-Christian-Islamic tradition (which itself includes significant differences between these “Abrahamic” religions) with the Indo-Buddhist one to see the specific features of the respective sociocultural formations and mentalities. Thus, in the first of these traditions, the personal and activist principle, the ideas of God the Creator and the immortality of the individual soul, which preserves self-consciousness and, consequently, identity itself, are clearly expressed.
In the second tradition, the person is not represented as such. That rules independently. The idea of reincarnation (reincarnation) is difficult to reconcile with the preservation of identity;
Inherent in primitive consciousness, the focus on the anthropomorphic explanation of the world has led to the fact that in the mythology there was an idea of the existence of the second plane of the existing world (the soul of the world). It should be noted that in the framework of mythological thinking there was no opposition of natural and supernatural, so the soul was understood naturally.
In this case, the changes that took place in the real world were understood as the actions of certain actors. Accordingly, the idea arose that to change the conditions of human existence it is necessary to turn directly to the spirits. But man in his bodily form is incapable of reaching beyond the visible world and making a journey to the spirits.
Therefore, it was necessary to free the human soul from the body and in this state to send it on a journey. This interpretation was all the more probable because the first ideas about the soul arose through observations of the processes of falling asleep, dying. But ordinary sleep was not suitable for this, because in it a person does not rule over his soul. There was a need for a special social institution – shamanism, which would consist of people capable of reaching a dreamlike state and “traveling” into the spirit world.
Shamans were the bearers of the same ideology as the social organism as a whole. their vision of the world is based on the ideas, categories of thinking that their fellow tribesmen. This led to the fact that shamanic experience fit organically into the structure of mythological worldview and served as a further source of primitive mythology as a general “mass” culture and in the field of “specialized” shamanic activity. In general, the principle of participation prevails in mythological thinking.
Primitive man looks at the world through the prism of sub-ness. Since the system of understanding is based on the structures of practical activity, and the main element of the latter is living human activity, the world was understood anthropomorphically by analogy with human action itself. The whole world comes to life, and man himself acts as a kindred world.
In general, mythological thinking presents the unity of man and the world, and, due to the compensatory formation of the myth, this unity does not just exist in consciousness but is experienced with the fullness of the sense of its reality. Note that this moment of the mythological worldview becomes one of the leading motives of the mystical experience and is perceived as the highest revelation, inaccessible in the conditions of ordinary human existence.
Such mythological ideas about the world are directly related to the phenomena of mystical experience.
The period of domination of primitive ideas can be defined as cosmological or mythopoetic, because the main content of texts in semiotic terms is to personal narrative story ideas fight the cosmic orderly principle with chaotic destructive principle, to describe the stages of successive creation of the world, and the main way to understand the world and resolve contradictions mythology, which is understood not only as a system of myths, but also as a special type of thinking chronologically and essentially opposite to historical and natural types of thinking.
The cosmological scheme largely determines the original ideas about the world. Relevant texts often consist of two parts. The first is devoted to what was “before” (that is, to the act of creation): a description of Chaos, which is usually characterized by a series of generally negative judgments such as “then there was neither heaven nor earth; neither day nor night; neither life nor death … “, or” the earth was invisible and empty, and darkness over the abyss … “. the other part of the scheme, on the contrary, consists of a series of positive judgments about the consistent creation of the elements of the universe in the direction from the general cosmic to the more partial and human.
This can be traced in the following sequences: the separation of Chaos from the Cosmos, the sky from the earth, the waters from the earth; the emergence of the Sun and Moon, lights, winds; the main elements of the landscape, stones, plants, animals appear; the emergence of man “first man”, the first cultural hero, the founder of the tradition), the social hierarchy, the structure of which is determined by various functions of social institutions, cultural tradition.
An integral feature of primitive ideas about the world – an inseparable link between diachrony and synchrony. The diachronic aspect of the myth is a story about the past, and the synchronous is a means of explaining what is real, what exists today, and sometimes what will exist in the future.
For the primitive consciousness, all that is now is the result of the unfolding of the initial precedent, the explication of the ascending situation into the new conditions of cosmological existence. In this sense, all the events of the cosmological myth are only a repetition of what was inherent in the act of creation, and all the heroes of the myth are different variations of the demiurge in the same act.
Thus, in the middle of the cosmological myth creates a fairly complete, visual and total system of identifications with the rules of transition from one event to another, from one hero to another. Therefore, it can be argued that the primitive consciousness is highly focused on the constant solution of identity problems.
There is a fairly large class of mythopoetic texts with a variety of traditions, which are based on the identification of cosmic (natural) and human (flesh – earth, blood – water, hair – plants, eyes – sun, soul – wind, head – sky, etc.). ).
In the linguistic data of a number of archaic traditions one can find much evidence of ascending identities in the definition of space and time, as well as in the definition of the whole volume of space and the whole volume of time space-time points – here and now.
The mythological concept, in principle, very closely and organically correlates space and time with each other. In a critical situation, for example, at the junction of the Old and New Years – both space and time lose their previous structure, “torn”.